1) Dental caries: It is the disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure
(enamel, dentin and cementum). These tissues breakdown producing dental caries. If left
untreated the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss and infection. When we eat sugary foods and
other carbohydrates, the bacteria use them as the food too and produce acids that can dissolve
tooth enamel. Once the decay breaks through the enamel to cause a cavity the damage is
permanent. Left untreated the decay will get worse and destroys a tooth all the way.
2) Pulpitis– It is the painful inflammation of the pulp. Mainly caused by bacterial infection which
itself is a secondary development of caries. Increased sensitivity to stimuli (hot and cold) is the
common symptom. There are classified in two categories:
» Acute pulpitis: In this there is rapid spread of inflammation through pulp with pain + necrosis.
Severe pain elicited by thermal stimulus and pain persists even after the removal of stimuli.
» Chronic pulpitis: In this there is persistent inflammatory reaction in pulp with little or no
symptoms. The etiological factor is previous acute pulpitis and chronic dental caries.
3) Periodontitis: It is a serious gum infection that damages the gums and can destroy the
jawbone. It is caused by the bacteria that have been allowed to accumulate on your teeth and
gums. As periodontitis progresses the bones and teeth can be damaged. However, if it is
treated early and proper oral hygiene is maintained, the damage can be stopped. Red, swollen
or tender gums, receding gums or loose teeth are some of the warning signs of periodontitis.
4) Malocclusion: It is usually an inherited condition where there is misalignment of upper and
lower teeth as the jaw closes. There are three major classes of malocclusion.
» Class 1 malocclusion is the most common. The bite is normal, but the upper teeth slightly
overlap the lower teeth.
» Class 2 malocclusion occurs when a severe overbite is present. This causes the upper teeth to
overlap the lower teeth.
» Class 3 malocclusion is when there’s a severe underbite. This causes the lower teeth to
overlap the upper teeth.
5) Impaction– Sometimes there is not enough space in the mouth for the wisdom tooth to
erupt. This causes the tooth to become impacted. It could potentially become problematic if
not extracted. Type of impactions include:
» "Soft tissue" impaction where the upper portion of the wisdom tooth has penetrated through
the bone but not yet erupted through the gum.
» "Hard tissue" impaction is when the tooth lies within the jawbone. It can be-
⊙ Mesioangular impaction (44%) is the most common form where the tooth is angled forward,
towards the front of the mouth.
⊙ Vertical impaction (38%) occurs when the tooth does not erupt fully through the gum line.
⊙ Distoangular impaction (6%) means the tooth is angled backward, away from the mouth.
⊙ Horizontal impaction (3%) is the least common form, which occurs when the tooth is angled
fully ninety degrees sideways, growing into the roots of the second molar.
6) Dental fluorosis
Most permanent teeth form between the age of 5 and 8 in children. And if you happen to
notice any white spots on your child’s teeth, it could be a sign of dental fluorosis, an extremely
common cosmetic disorder caused by overexposure to fluoride during the first eight years life.
Teeth affected by fluorosis may appear mildly discolored and other symptoms include tiny
white specks or dark brown stains and rough, pitted enamel that is difficult to clean. At Smilon,
we have just the right treatment plans to make sure that your child’s beautiful smile is
7) TMJ disorders
This disorder can cause pain in your jaw joint and in the muscles that control jaw movement.
The pain can be due to a combination of factors including genetics, arthritis or jaw injury. Some
others can be in pain because they tend to clench or grind their teeth. In most cases, the pain
and discomfort associated with TMJ disorders is temporary and can be relieved with self-
managed care or nonsurgical treatments. Surgery is done only when other conservative
measures have failed. Seek medical attention if you have persistent pain or tenderness in your
jaw, or if you can't open or close your jaw completely. Smilon offers some of the best treatment
options for TMJ disorders.
8) Precancerous lesion: It is a morphologically altered tissue in which cancer is more likely to
occur than its apparently normal counterpart. Some of these lesions that are more likely to
develop oral cancer includes- leukoplakia, erythroplakia, palatal lesion of reverse cigar smoking,
oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, discoid lupus erythematosus, and hereditary
disorders such as dyskeratosis congenital and epidermolysis bullosa.